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Jakub Szafran

Django & grouping by year of the week

/ 3 min read

I’ve been recently working on a task at my job that involved debugging some aggregated calculations in Django (group by year of the week - i.e. 2022 Week 1, 2022 Week 2, 2022 Week 3 and so on - according to ISO week date definition). I’d like to share with you what I’ve learnt from this task.

TL;DR - Use ExtractIsoYear function instead of ExtractYear when defining a year according to ISO-8601.

Data model

Let’s introduce a simple model that I’ll using throughout this post - Donation.

from django.db import models

class Donation(models.Model):
    amount = models.DecimalField(decimal_places=2, max_digits=10)
    created_at = models.DateTimeField()

    def __str__(self):
        return f"{self.created_at.isoformat()} {self.amount}$"

Let’s say that I’d like to perform some kind of aggregation per year of the week - for example I’m trying to answer a question like I'd like to know how many donations were made in each week of the year.

created_at field defines creation timestamp for a donation and I’ll use it for further calculations.

Creating some exemplary objects:

from datetime import datetime
from decimal import Decimal

import pytz

from someapp.models import Donation

Donation.objects.create(amount=Decimal("5.00"), created_at=datetime(2021, 1, 1, 10, 00, 00, tzinfo=pytz.UTC))
Donation.objects.create(amount=Decimal("2.00"), created_at=datetime(2021, 1, 2, 10, 00, 00, tzinfo=pytz.UTC))
Donation.objects.create(amount=Decimal("3.25"), created_at=datetime(2021, 1, 3, 10, 00, 00, tzinfo=pytz.UTC))
Donation.objects.create(amount=Decimal("14.00"), created_at=datetime(2021, 1, 4, 10, 00, 00, tzinfo=pytz.UTC))
Donation.objects.create(amount=Decimal("14.00"), created_at=datetime(2021, 1, 5, 10, 00, 00, tzinfo=pytz.UTC))

Extracting week & year from timestamp

To do the aggregation, I’ll need to derive week & year from the created_at field. Quick peek at django.db.models.functions module and ExtractWeek & ExtractYear functions look like a good candidates for a job. Annotation would look like this:

from django.db.models.functions import ExtractWeek, ExtractYear

    year=ExtractYear("created_at"), week=ExtractWeek("created_at"),

But when you take a deeper look at aggregations, you’ll notice something’s wrong:

    year=ExtractYear("created_at"), week=ExtractWeek("created_at"),
).values("year", "week").distinct()

# above expression returns
<QuerySet [{'year': 2021, 'week': 1}, {'year': 2021, 'week': 53}]>

Year 2021 & week 53 seems like a future considering that max datetime of donation is January 5th, 2021. Why is that happening?


Turns out that, according to ISO-8601 definition, dates 2021-01-01, 2021-01-02, 2021-01-03 belong to the last week of 2020 (week number 53). ExtractWeek utilize the same ISO definition, while ExtractYear returns exact year from given timestamp.

To fix this mismatch, we’ll need to use ExtractIsoYear function from django.db.models.functions module:

from django.db.models.functions import ExtractWeek, ExtractIsoYear

    year=ExtractIsoYear("created_at"), week=ExtractWeek("created_at"),
).values("year", "week").distinct()

# result
<QuerySet [{'year': 2020, 'week': 53}, {'year': 2021, 'week': 1}]>

Week 53 of 2020 and week 1 of 2021 is a correct result.

Hope this short post will help you to avoid some bugs in the future,

Best Regards